Database and information hub for forensic X-chromosomal markers

Software and Kits

Software and databases suitable for ChrX markers


The software FamLinkX provides functions for likelihood calculation on family relationships/pedigrees using linked DNA marker data located on the ChrX. FamLinkX is a freely available software, accessible via The software was developed by Daniel Kling, Andreas Tillmar, Thore Egeland and Petter Mostad [1, 2].

The statistical tool FamLinkX can be used for the interpretation of clusters of linked markers located on the X chromosome. It requires haplotype frequencies and can model mutations and recombinations within a cluster. The main function is to calculate case specific likelihood ratios (LR) with observed DNA-data for X-chromosomal markers. The software provides an easy-to-use graphical user interface for Windows systems.

[1] Kling D, Tillmar A, Egeland T, Mostad P. A general model for likelihood computations of genetic marker data accounting for linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and mutations. Int J Legal Med. 2015 Sep;129(5):943-54.

[2] Kling D, Dell'Amico B, Tillmar AO. FamLinkX - implementation of a general model for likelihood computations for X-chromosomal marker data. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 2015 Jul;17:1-7.

GenoProof® Suite

GenoProof® Suite is a professional all-in-one solution for DNA analysis in the field of forensic molecular genetics. The application allows you to put together an individual solution taylored to your needs by selecting special expert modules and to expand it later if required.

The kinship module supports the entire kinship investigation process, from genotyping samples to performing biostatistical calculations and generating reports.

The software determines all important parameters for standard trio and duo constellations and even for unusual scenarios like deficiency cases and incest cases.

GenoProof® Suite supports autosomal, x-chromosomal as well as y-chromosomal analyses. Additionally, rare alleles and linked markers can be taken into account. Different mutation models (RFLP, AABB or Step model), silent alleles, subpopulations and linkage groups for calculations are also considered.

Family trees simplify the visualization of family relations. Furthermore, you can conduct sibling analyses, monozygoty tests and avuncular tests.

GenoProof® Suite is not free of charge. Feel free to ask for a trial version via GenoProof Suite - qualitype GmbH.

Brazilian Genetic Database of Chromosome X

The database contains data of works published and indexed in the PubMed database. It is composed of different sections in which diverse information about X-STR markers studied in the Brazilian population can be found, including: allele and haplotype frequencies, statistical parameters of forensic interest, information on primers reported in the literature as well as location and allele structure of X-STRs.

Rutgers combined linkage-physical human genome map

Matise et al. have constructed a high-resolution genetic map that includes most of the polymorphic markers for which genotype data are publicly available, that combines genotype data from both the CEPH and deCODE pedigrees, that incorporates SNPs and also sequence-based positional information. Most of the markers on their map are confirmed by genomic sequence and recombination-based data. It is a comprehensive resource for determining genetic map information (order and distances) for polymorphic markers.

These data were integrated into the web-based linkage mapping server MAP-O-MAT for the analysis of human linkage maps (Kong, X. and Matise T., 2005).

Kits for ChrX markers

Investigator Argus X-12 QS PCR Amplification Kit

The Investigator Argus X-12 QS Kit is a multiplex solution for human identification. The 12 X-chromosomal markers, D21S11 and Amelogenin are co-amplified. With its innovative Quality Sensor (QS), the Investigator Argus X-12 QS Kit includes a novel internal performance control. This allows you to readily determine if your PCR run was successful or if there was no DNA present in your sample. The Investigator Argus X-12 QS Kit is suitable for paternity or kinship testing and for gonosomal STR analysis of forensic stains.

Elakkary S., Hoffmeister-Ullerich S., Schulze C., Seif E., Sheta A., Hering S., et al. (2014). Genetic polymorphisms of twelve X-STRs of the investigator Argus X-12 kit and additional six X-STR centromere region loci in an Egyptian population sample. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 11 26-30.


In a collaborative work of the Spanish and Portuguese ISFG Working Group (GEP-ISFG), a PCR multiplex was optimized to type ten X-chromosome STRs in a single reaction, including: DXS8378, DXS9902, DXS7132, DXS9898, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7133, GATA172D05, GATA31E08, and DXS7423.

Gusmão L, et al. (2009) A GEP-ISFG collaborative study on the optimization of an X-STR decaplex: data on 15 Iberian and Latin American populations. Int J Legal Med 123(3):227-34


19 X-chromosomal STR loci (DXS7423, DXS10148, DXS10159, DXS6809, DXS7424, DXS8378, DXS10164, DXS10162, DXS7132, DXS10079, DXS6789, DXS101, DXS10103,DXS10101, HPRTB, DXS10075, DXS10074, DXS10135, and DXS10134).

Yang X, Wu W, Chen L, Liu CH, Zhang XF, Chen L, Feng XL, Wang HJ, Liu C (2016) Development of the 19 X-STR loci multiplex system and genetic analysis of a Zhejiang Han population in China. Electrophoresis 37:2260-2272.

Goldeneye 17X kit

16 X-chromosomal STR-loci (DXS6795, DXS9902, DXS8378, HPRTB, GATA165B12, DXS7132, DXS7424, DXS6807, DXS6803, GATA172D05, DXS6800, DXS10134, GATA31E08, DXS10159, DXS6789, and DXS6810).

Gao H., Wang C., Zhang R., Wu H., SunS, Xiao D., et al. (2019). Application of CPI cutoff value based on parentage testing of duos and trios typed by four autosomal kits. PLoS ONE 14:e0225174.

MiSeq FGxTM Forensic Genomics

7 X-chromosomal STR-loci (HPRTB, DXS7132, DXS7423, DXS8378, DXS10074, DXS10103, and DXS10135).

Jäger A. C., Alvarez M. L., Davis C. P., Guzmán E., Han Y., Way L., et al. (2017). Developmental validation of the MiSeq FGx Forensic Genomics System for Targeted Next Generation Sequencing in Forensic DNA Casework and Database Laboratories. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 28 52-70.

16 X-STR multiplex PCR system (inhouse-Kit)

13 X-STR loci located in four clusters (DXS10148-DXS10135-DXS8378, DXS7132-DXS10079-DXS10074-DXS10075, DXS6801-DXS6809-DXS6789 and DXS7424-DXS101-DXS7133). In addition, three single loci (DXS9902, HPRTB and DXS7423).

Perera N, Galhena G, Ranawaka G (2021) Development of a 16 X-STR multiplex PCR system for kinship analysis and its applicability for the Sinhalese population in Sri Lanka. Int J Legal Med 136(1):161-166


Based on the review of december 2018, it has been decided in cooperation with the X working group to remove the PI calculation from this website.